These page contain an exerpt of useful litterature on the biological effects of EMF - it is incomplete and biased toward our own interests - SORRY for that (an EndNote file is awailable HERE)


Zhao, J.X. and Li, J.X. (2003) Algorithm analysis of electromagnetic wave power density measurement for millimeter-wave irradiators in bioelectromagnetic experiments. International Journal of Infrared and Millimeter Waves 24 (6), 909-928

Wang, J.Q. and Fujiwara, O. (2003) Realizing highly localized exposure in small animals with absorbing material covered holder to test biological effects of 1.5 GHz cellular telephones. Ieice Transactions on Communications E86B (5), 1660-1665

Tynes, T. et al. (2003) Residential and occupational exposure to 50 Hz magnetic fields and malignant melanoma: a population based study. Occupational and Environmental Medicine 60 (5), 343-347

Thalau, H.P. et al. (2003) Temperature changes in chicken embryos exposed to a continuous-wave 1.25 GHz radiofrequency electromagnetic field. Radiation Research 159 (5), 685-692

Siauve, N. et al. (2003) 3D modelling of electromagnetic fields in local hyperthermia. European Physical Journal-Applied Physics 21 (3), 243-250

Pooley, D.T. et al. (2003) Biological effects of millimeter-wave radiation: A high-throughput screening system. Review of Scientific Instruments 74 (3), 1296-1302

Lv, Y.G. and Liu, J. (2003) A theoretical way of distinguishing the thermal and non-thermal effects in biological tissues subject to EM radiation. Forschung Im Ingenieurwesen-Engineering Research 67 (6), 242-253

Lin, J.C. (2003) Personal telecommunication radiation safety and the precautionary principle. Ieee Antennas and Propagation Magazine 45 (2), 142-145

Hossmann, K.A. and Hermann, D.M. (2003) Effects of electromagnetic radiation of mobile phones on the central nervous system. Bioelectromagnetics 24 (1), 49-62

10 Calzoni, G.L. et al. (2003) Weak extremely high frequency microwaves affect pollen-tube emergence and growth in kiwifruit: Pollen grain irradiation and water-mediated effects. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 9 (2), 217-233

11 Banik, S. et al. (2003) Bioeffects of microwave - a brief review. Bioresource Technology 87 (2), 155-159

12 Arafa, H.M.M. et al. (2003) Immunomodulatory effects Of L-carnitine and q10 in mouse spleen exposed to low-frequency high-intensity magnetic field. Toxicology 187 (2-3), 171-181

13 Adair, R.K. (2003) Biophysical limits on athermal effects of RF and microwave radiation. Bioelectromagnetics 24 (1), 39-48

14 Yu, G.F. et al. (2002) Can millimeter waves generate electroporation? International Journal of Infrared and Millimeter Waves 23 (8), 1261-1269

15 Yoshizawa, H. et al. (2002) No effect of extremely low-frequency magnetic field observed on cell growth or initial response of cell proliferation in human cancer cell lines. Bioelectromagnetics 23 (5), 355-368

16 Weaver, J.C. (2002) Understanding conditions for which biological effects of nonionizing electromagnetic fields can be expected. Bioelectrochemistry 56 (1-2), 207-209

17 Takahashi, S. et al. (2002) Lack of mutation induction with exposure to 1.5 GHz electromagnetic near fields used for cellular phones in brains of big blue mice. Cancer Research 62 (7), 1956-1960

18 Szendro, P. et al. (2002) Treating sugar-beet seeds with an electric discharge field. Novenytermeles 51 (3), 309-314

19 Swanson, J. (2002) A transmission utility's experience of applying EMF exposure standards. Health Physics 83 (3), 417-425

20 Still, M. et al. (2002) Inability of 50 Hz magnetic fields to regulate PKC- and Ca2+-dependent gene expression in Jurkat cells. Cell Biology International 26 (2), 203-209

21 Sheppard, A.R. et al. (2002) Exposure guidelines for low-frequency electric and magnetic fields: Report from the brussels workshop. Health Physics 83 (3), 324-332

22 Shcheglov, V.S. et al. (2002) Cell-to-cell communication in response of E-coli cells at different phases of growth to low-intensity microwaves. Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta-General Subjects 1572 (1), 101-106

23 Shallom, J.M. et al. (2002) Microwave exposure induces hsp70 and confers protection against hypoxia in chick embryos. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 86 (3), 490-496

24 Ruzic, R. and Jerman, I. (2002) Weak magnetic field decreases heat stress in cress seedlings. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine 21 (1), 69-80

25 Robison, J.G. et al. (2002) Decreased DNA repair rates and protection from heat induced apoptosis mediated by electromagnetic field exposure. Bioelectromagnetics 23 (2), 106-112

26 Richard, D. et al. (2002) Influence of 50 Hz electromagnetic fields in combination with a tumour promoting phorbol ester on protein kinase C and cell cycle in human cells. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 232 (1-2), 133-141

27 Repacholi, M. and Kheifets, L. (2002) WHO's recommendations on health effects from EMF exposure. Health Physics 82 (6), S149-S149

28 Renew, D.C. and Glover, I.D. (2002) Basic restrictions in EMF exposure guidelines. Health Physics 83 (3), 395-401

29 Rao, R.R. et al. (2002) Effects of 60 Hz electromagnetic field exposure on APP695 transcription levels in differentiating human neuroblastoma cells. Bioelectrochemistry 57 (1), 9-15

30 Panagopoulos, D.J. et al. (2002) Mechanism for action of electromagnetic fields on cells. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 298 (1), 95-102

31 Ozturan, O. et al. (2002) Effects of the electromagnetic field of mobile telephones on hearing. Acta Oto-Laryngologica 122 (3), 289-293

32 Oppenheimer, M. and Preston-Martin, S. (2002) Adult onset acute myelogenous leukemia and electromagnetic fields in Los Angeles County: Bed-heating and occupational exposures. Bioelectromagnetics 23 (6), 411-415

33 Nindl, G. et al. (2002) Effect of ultraviolet B radiation and 100 Hz electromagnetic fields on proliferation and DNA synthesis of Jurkat cells. Bioelectromagnetics 23 (6), 455-463

34 Neutra, R.R. (2002) Democratic foresight strategies in the California EMF program. Epidemiology 13 (4), S91-S92

35 Mueller, C.H. et al. (2002) Project NEMESIS: Perception of a 50 Hz electric and magnetic field at low intensities (laboratory experiment). Bioelectromagnetics 23 (1), 26-36

36 Mercer, D. (2002) Scientific method discourses in the construction of 'EMF science': Interests, resources and rhetoric in submissions to a public inquiry. Social Studies of Science 32 (2), 205-233

37 McNamee, J.P. et al. (2002) DNA damage and apoptosis in the immature mouse cerebellum after acute exposure to a 1 mT, 60 Hz magnetic field. Mutation Research-Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis 513 (1-2), 121-133

38 Marino, A.A. et al. (2002) Consistent magnetic-field induced dynamical changes in rabbit brain activity detected by recurrence quantification analysis. Brain Research 951 (2), 301-310

39 Macri, M.A. et al. (2002) Biological effects of electromagnetic fields. International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology 15 (2), 95-105

40 Litvak, E. et al. (2002) Health and safety implications of exposure to electromagnetic fields in the frequency range 300 Hz to 10 MHz. Bioelectromagnetics 23 (1), 68-82

41 Li, C.Y. et al. (2002) Risk of cognitive impairment in relation to elevated exposure to electromagnetic fields. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 44 (1), 66-72

42 Leszczynski, D. et al. (2002) Non-thermal activation of the hsp27/p38MAPK stress pathway by mobile phone radiation in human endothelial cells: Molecular mechanism for cancer- and blood-brain barrier-related effects. Differentiation 70 (2-3), 120-U121

43 Kawczyk-Krupka, A. et al. (2002) Biological effects of extremely low-frequency magnetic fields on stimulated macrophages J774.2 in cell culture. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine 21 (2), 141-153

44 Ivancsits, S. et al. (2002) Induction of DNA strand breaks by intermittent exposure to extremely-low-frequency electromagnetic fields in human diploid fibroblasts. Mutation Research-Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis 519 (1-2), 1-13

45 Hanf, V. (2002) Electromagnetic fields and breast cancer - A review. Geburtshilfe Und Frauenheilkunde 62 (1), 22-29

46 Hadjiloucas, S. et al. (2002) Preliminary results on the non-thermal effects of 200-350 GHz radiation on the growth rate of S-cerevisiae cells in microcolonies. Physics in Medicine and Biology 47 (21), 3831-3839

47 Gartzke, J. and Lange, K. (2002) Cellular target of weak magnetic fields: ionic conduction along actin filaments of microvilli. American Journal of Physiology-Cell Physiology 283 (5), C1333-C1346

48 Funke, H.G. (2002) EMF: Studies in early modern France, vol 4, Utopia, part 1, 16th and 17th centuries. Romanische Forschungen 114 (1), 128-131

49 Frick, U. et al. (2002) Risk perception, somatization, and self report of complaints related to electromagnetic fields - A randomized survey study. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 205 (5), 353-360

50 Estecio, M.R.H. and Silva, A.E. (2002) Chromosome abnormalities caused by computer video display monitors' radiation. Revista De Saude Publica 36 (3), 330-336

51 Erren, T.C. (2002) ELF-EMF, endocrine disruptors, light: what if we apply triage to research? Medical Hypotheses 59 (2), 212-214

52 Di Carlo, A. et al. (2002) Chronic electromagnetic field exposure decreases HSP70 levels and lowers cytoprotection. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 84 (3), 447-454

53 Deutsch, S. (2002) EMF cancer scares: Epidemiology versus body power. Ieee Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine 21 (1), 90-91

54 de Pomerai, D.I. et al. (2002) Growth and maturation of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans following exposure to weak microwave fields. Enzyme and Microbial Technology 30 (1), 73-79

55 Dasdag, S. et al. (2002) Effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields on hematologic and immunologic parameters in welders. Archives of Medical Research 33 (1), 29-32

56 Ciombor, D.M. et al. (2002) Low frequency EMF regulates chondrocyte differentiation and expression of matrix proteins. Journal of Orthopaedic Research 20 (1), 40-50

57 Cherry, N. (2002) Schumann resonances, a plausible biophysical mechanism for the human health effects of Solar/Geomagnetic activity. Natural Hazards 26 (3), 279-331

58 Caorsi, S. et al. (2002) A finite-element procedure based on a boundary-value approach for the evaluation of the electromagnetic exposure in biological phantoms. Ieee Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques 50 (10), 2346-2352

59 Braune, S. et al. (2002) Influence of a radiofrequency electromagnetic field on cardiovascular and hormonal parameters of the autonomic nervous system in healthy individuals. Radiation Research 158 (3), 352-356

60 Binhi, V.N. and Savin, A.V. (2002) Molecular gyroscopes and biological effects of weak extremely low-frequency magnetic fields. Physical Review E 65 (5), art. no.-051912

61 Bailey, W.H. (2002) Special issue on the EMF exposure guidelines science workshop. Health Physics 83 (3), 323-323

62 Bailey, W.H. (2002) Health effects relevant to the setting of emf exposure limits. Health Physics 83 (3), 376-386

63 Alasonati, E. et al. (2002) Use of fractal dimension for the analysis of biological effects of electromagnetic field on the moss P.patens and the nematode C. elegans. In International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility (Vol. submitted)

64 Adair, R.K. (2002) Vibrational Resonances in biological systems at microwave frequencies. Biophysical Journal 82 (3), 1147-1152

65 Williams, C.D. et al. (2001) Therapeutic electromagnetic field effects on angiogenesis and tumor growth. Anticancer Research 21 (6A), 3887-3891

66 Sun, W.J. et al. (2001) Exposure to 50 Hz electromagnetic fields induces the phosphorylation and activity of stress-activated protein kinase in cultured cells. Electro- and Magnetobiology 20 (3), 415-423

67 Strasser, R.J. and Stirbet, A.D. (2001) Estimation of the energetic connectivity of PSII centres in plants using the fluorescence rise O-J-I-P - Fitting of experimental data to three different PSII models. Mathematics and Computers in Simulation 56 (4-5), 451-461

68 Schaefer, D. (2001) Pinciples and protocoles for the moss Physcomitrella patens University of Lausanne, Insititute of Ecology, Laboratory of Plant Cell Genetics

69 Schaefer, D.G. and Zryd, J.P. (2001) The moss Physcomitrella patens, now and then. Plant Physiology 127 (4), 1430-1438

70 Pickard, W.F. and Moros, E.G. (2001) Energy deposition processes in biological tissue: nonthermal biohazards seem unlikely in the ultra-high frequency range. Bioelectromagnetics 22 (2), 97-105

71 Novikov, V.V. and Fesenko, E.E. (2001) Hydrolysis of peptides and proteins in weak combined constant and low-frequency variable magnetic fields. Biofizika 46 (2), 235-241

72 Mucci, N. et al. (2001) In vivo modulation of ETS genes induced by electromagnetic fields. In Vivo 15 (6), 489-494

73 Marino, A.A. et al. (2001) Nonlinear determinism in the immune system. In vivo influence of electromagnetic fields on different functions of murine lymphocyte subpopulations. Immunological Investigations 30 (4), 313-334

74 Laverdure, A.M. et al. (2001) Growth, development, reproduction, physiological and behavioural studies on living organisms, human adults and children exposed to radiation from video displays. Indoor and Built Environment 10 (5), 306-309

75 Lambrozo, J. (2001) Electric and magnetic fields with a frequency of 50-60 Hz: Assessment of 20 years of research. Indoor and Built Environment 10 (5), 299-305

76 Jiao, H.L. et al. (2001) Apoptosis of Ehrlich mouse ascites cells induced by long-term exposure of weak electromagnetic fields in vivo. Electro- and Magnetobiology 20 (3), 299-311

77 Higashikubo, R. et al. (2001) Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields do not alter the cell cycle progression of C3H 10T1/2 and U87MG cells. Radiation Research 156 (6), 786-795

78 Gvozdev, V.I. et al. (2001) Model of a biological cell exposed to extremely small doses (Discussed). Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering 29 (5-6), 623-633

79 Ahlbom, A. et al. (2001) Review of the epidemiologic literature on EMF and health. Environmental Health Perspectives 109, 911-933

80 Zryd, J.-P. et al. (2000) Influence of 50 Hz magnetic fields on the moss Physcomitrella patens. In 4th European Symposium on Electromagnetic compatibility, EMC 2000

81 Wood, A.J. et al. (2000) Bryophytes as model systems. Bryologist 103 (1), 128-133

82 Wixon, J. et al. (2000) Caenorhabditis elegans. Yeast 17 (1), 37-42

83 Teichmann, E.M. et al. (2000) [Possible mutagenic effects of magnetic fields]. Rofo. Fortschritte auf dem Gebiete der Rontgenstrahlen und der Neuen Bildgebenden Verfahren 172 (11), 934-939

84 Strasser, R.J. et al. (2000) The fluorescence transient as a tool to characterize and screen photosynthetic samples. In Probing Photosynthesis: Mechanism, Regulation and Adaptation (M. Yunus et al., eds.), pp. 443-480, Taylor and Francis

85 ScienceScope. (2000) Cells and Cell Phones. Science 289 (11-August), 845

86 Samaras, T. et al. (2000) Electromagnetic and heat transfer computations for non-ionizing radiation dosimetry. Phys. Med. Biol. 45, 1-14

87 Queitsch, C. et al. (2000) Heat shock protein 101 plays a crucial role in thermotolerance in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 12 (4), 479-492

88 Pickard, W.F. et al. (2000) Experimental and numerical determination of SAR distributions within culture flasks in a dielectric loaded radial transmission line. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering 47 (2), 202-208

89 Kotnik, T. and Miklavcic, D. (2000) Second-order model of membrane electric field induced by alternating external electric fields. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering 47 (8), 1074-1081

90 Fan, X.B. et al. (2000) Ultrasound field estimation method using a secondary source-array numerically constructed from a limited number of pressure measurements. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 107 (6), 3259-3265

91 de Pomerai, D. et al. (2000) Microwave radiation induces a heat-shock response and enhances growth in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques 48 (11), 2076-2081

92 de Pomerai, D. et al. (2000) Non-thermal heat-shock response to microwaves. Nature 405 (6785), 417-418

93 (2000) Cells and Cell Phones. Science 289, 845

94 Yamada, S. et al. (1999) Induction of the Heat Shock Gene Encoding 16kD Shock Polypeptide by Coupled Stimulus of Heat and ELF Magnetic Fields in C.elegans. Proceedings Int. Union of Radio Science 8, 623

95 Reski, R. (1999) Molecular genetics of Physcomitrella [Review]. Planta 208 (3), 301-309

96 Pickard, W.F. et al. (1999) Simplified model and measurement of specific absorption rate distribution in a culture flask within a transverse electromagnetic mode exposure system. Bioelectromagnetics 20 (3), 183-193

97 Moros, E.G. and Pickard, W.F. (1999) On the assumption of negligible heat diffusion during the thermal measurement of a nonuniform specific absorption rate. Radiation Research 152 (3), 312-320

98 Higashikubo, R. et al. (1999) Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields have no effect on the in vivo proliferation of the 9L brain tumor. Radiation Research 152 (6), 665-671

99 Haldimann, P. and Strasser, R.J. (1999) Effects of anaerobiosis as probed by the polyphasic chlorophyll a fluorescence rise kinetic in pea (Pisum sativum L.). Photosynthesis Research 62 (1), 67-83

100 Freeman, D.C. et al. (1999) Developmental instability as a means of assessing stress in plants: A case study using electromagnetic fields and soybeans. International Journal of Plant Sciences 160 (6 Suppl S), S157-S166

101 Zryd, J.-P. and Schaefer, D.G. (1998) Indiviuazione di un organismo vegetale per lo studio dell'interazione fra campo elettromagnetico e systema biologico. In Inquinamento elettromagnetico a 50 Hz - Statto dell'arte ed indagini sperimentali, pp. 89-98, PN Communication

102 Puchta, H. (1998) Toward targeted transformation in plants. Trends in Plant Science 3 (3), 77-78

103 Schaefer, D.G. and Zryd, J.P. (1997) Efficient gene targeting in the moss Physcomitrella patens. Plant Journal 11 (6), 1195-1206

104 Gos, P. et al. (1997) Extremely high frequency electromagnetic fields at low power density do not affect the division of exponential phase Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. Bioelectromagnetics 18 (2), 142-155

105 Bezrukov, S.M. and Vodyanoy, I. (1997) Stochastic resonance in non-dynamical systems without response thresholds. Nature 385 (6614), 319-321

106 Schmidt, T. et al. (1996) Automated E-field scanning system for dosimetric assesments. In IEEE Trans. on Microwave Theory and Techniques (Vol. 44), pp. 105-113

107 Jones, D. et al. (1996) Transgenic strains of the nematode C. elegans in biomonitoring and toxicology: effects of captan and related compounds on the stress response. Toxicology 109 (2-3), 119-127

108 Candido, E.P.J.D. (1996) Transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans strains as biosensors. [Review] [29 refs]. Trends in Biotechnology 14 (4), 125-129

109 Burkhardt, M. et al. (1996) Numerical and experimental dosimetry of Petri dish exposure setups. Bioelectromagnetics 17 (6), 483-493

110 Lewis, J.A. and T., F.J. (1995) Basic Culture Methods. In Caenorhabditis elegans: Modern Biological Analysis of an Organism (Vol. 48) (Epstein, H.F. and Shakes, D.C., eds.), Academic Press

111 Fracchia, F.D. and Ashton, N.W. (1995) Case Study: A visualization tool for studying the development of the moss Physcomitrella patens. In Proceedings of IEEE Visualization '95', pp. 364-367, IEEE Computer Society Press

112 Bezrukov, S.M. and Vodyanoy, I. (1995) Noise-induced enhancement of signal transduction across voltage-dependent ion channels. Nature 378 (6555), 362-364

113 Bessho, K. et al. (1995) Biological responses in Caenorhabditis elegans to high magnetic fields. Experientia 51 (3), 284-288

114 (1995) European Prestandard , Human exposure to high frequency electromagnetic fields (10 KHz to 300 GHz). In CENELEC

115 (1992) American National Standards-safety levels with respect to exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic fields, 3 kHz to 300 GHz. In IEEE

116 Candido, E.P. et al. (1989) Structure, organization, and expression of the 16-kDa heat shock gene family of Caenorhabditis elegans. Genome 31 (2), 690-697

117 Burgess, J. and P.J., L. (1982) Cell-wall differentiation during growth of electrically polarised protoplasts of Physcomitrella. Planta 156, 241-248

118 Ashton, N.W. and Cove, D.J. (1977) The isolation and preliminary characterisation of auxotrophic and analogue resistant mutants in the moss Physcomitrella patens. Mol. Gen. Genet. 154, 87-95